SLIDE 1

SOLAR CELL

SLIDE 2

SOLAR CELL

SLIDE 3

SOLAR CELL

SLIDE 4

SOLAR CELL

SLIDE 5

SOLAR CELL

Tuesday, 27 November 2012

Innovation

Many of us don't know the real meaning of innovation.The below shown slide will help you more in understanding it.



Robotics





Thursday, 11 October 2012

Lamborgini Gallardo Technical Specification

Engine
Type : V10 5.2 litres
Power : 550 hp @ 8,000 rpm (410 kW)
Torque : 398 lb·ft @ 6,500 rpm (540 N·m)
Induction : Atmospheric
Power to weight ratio : N/A
Bore : 84 mm
Stroke : 92 mm
Fuel type : Premium
CO2 emissions : 7,400 kg/year
Ohter engines : none
Transmission :
  • 6-speed manual (base)
  • 6-speed automatic
Drivetrain : RWD
Vehicle type / Category 
Vehicle type : Coupe
Category : GT / Sport Performance
Assembly : Sant'Agata, Italie
Generation : 1
What's new : No major change
Fuel efficiency / Autonomy
City : 19.6 l/100km
Highway : 11.8 l/100km
Autonomy : 459 km
Tires / Suspension / Brakes / Safety
Steering : rack and pinion with assist
Traction control : yes
Stability control : yes
Seat belts : 2
Airbags : 4
Front suspension : independent, double wishbones
Rear suspension : independent, double wishbones
Front brakes : disc (ABS)
Rear brakes : disc (ABS)
Front tires : P255/35ZR19
Rear tires : P295/30ZR19
Dimensions / Weight
Length : 4,345 mm (171″)
Width : 1,900 mm (75″)
Height : 1,165 mm (46″)
Wheelbase : 2,560 mm (101″)
Front track : 1,632 mm (64″)
Rear track : 1,597 mm (63″)
Weight : 1,380 kg (3,042 lbs)
Weight distribution front-rear : 43% - 57%
Capacities 
Fuel tank : 90 l (24 gal)
Trunk : 110 l (4 ft3)
Towing : N/A
Box length : N/A
Performance 
0-100 km/h : 3.9 s
80-120 km/h : N/A
Top speed : 320 km/h
Braking distance : N/A
Warranty
Base warranty : 3 years / unlimited
Powetrain warranty : 3 years / unlimited
Insurability rating : N/A



Bugatti Veyron - Technical Specification

Bugatti Veyron Specification
Engine Type Petrol
Engine Description
Engine Displacement(cc) 8000cc W16 Turbocharged
No. of Cylinders
Maximum Power 987 Bhp @ 6000 rpm
Maximum Torque 1250 Nm @ 2200 rpm
Valves Per Cylinder
Valve Configuration
Fuel Supply System
Turbo Charger
Super Charger
Bugatti Veyron Transmission
Transmission Type
Gear box 7 Automatic
Drive Type
Bugatti Veyron Suspension System
Front Suspension NA
Rear Suspension NA
Bugatti Veyron Steering
Steering Type Tilt
Steering Column
Steering Gear Type 7 Automatic
Bugatti Veyron Brake System
Front Brake Type Front Ventilated
Rear Brake Type Rear Disk
Bugatti Veyron Performance
Top Speed 408
Acceleration (0-100 kmph)
Bugatti Veyron Fuel
Mileage-City (kmpl)
Mileage-Highway (kmpl) 35.0 kmpl.
Fuel Type 20.0 kmpl
Fuel Tank Capacity (litres) 100.00
Emission Norm Compliance
Bugatti Veyron Tyres
Tyre Size 0
Alloy Wheel Size
Bugatti Veyron Other Specifications
Seating Capacity 2
No of Doors 3
Bugatti Veyron Payload & Towing
Cargo Volume
General Bugatti Veyron Car Details
Country of Assembly Indonesia
Country of Manufacture Indonesia

Lamborgini Aventador- Technical Specification

Chassis and body

Frame:
Carbon fiber monocoque with Aluminium front and rear frames
Body:
Carbon fiber engine bonnet; movale spoiler and side air inlets; Aluminium front bonnet, front fenders and doors; SMC rear fender and rocker cover
Mirrors:
External mirror electrically foldable
Rear spoiler:
Moveable -3 positions depending on speed and drive select mode

Suspension

Suspension:
Front and rear horizontal monotube damper with push-rod system

Tyres and wheels

ESP:
ESP/ ABS with different ESP characteristics managed by drive select mode
Steering:
Steering Gear with 3 different servortonic characteristics managed by drive select mode
Front tires:
Pirelli 255/35 ZR19
Rear tires:
Pirelli 335/30 ZR20
Front wheels:
19’’ x 9J
Rear wheels:
20’’ x 12J
Curb-to-curb turning circle:
12.5 m (41.0 ft)

Airbags

Airbags:
Front dual stage driver airbag and front adaptive passenger airbag; seats with side “head-thorax” airbags; passenger and driver knee airbags

Brakes

Brakes:
Dual hydraulic circuit brake system with vacuum brake booster; front and rear CCB, 6-cylnder brake callipers, 4-cylinder brake callipers Ø 400x 38 mm – Ø 380 x 38 mm

Engine

Type:
V12, 60°, MPI
Displacement:
6,498 cm³ (396.5 cu.in.)
Bore and stroke:
Ø 95 mm x 76,4 mm
Valve gear:
Variable valve timing electronically controlled
Compression ratio:
11.8  (± 0.2) : 1
Maximum power:
700 HP (515 kW) @ 8,250 RPM
Maximum torque:
690 Nm (507 lbft) @ 5,500 RPM
Emission class:
EURO 5 – LEV 2
Emission control system:
Catalytic converters with lambdasensors
Cooling system:
Water and oil cooling system in the rear with variable air inlets
Engine management system:
Lamborghini Iniezione Eletronica (LIE) with Ion current analysis
Lubrification system:
Dry sump

Drivetrain

Type of transmission:
4WD with Haldex generation IV
Gearbox:
7 speed ISR, shifting characteristic depending on drive select mode
Clutch:
Dry Double plate clutch, Ø 235 mm
Standard:
AMT

Performance

Top speed:
350 km/h (217 mph)
Acceleration 0-100 km/h (0-62 mph):
2.9 s

Dimensions

Wheelbase:
2,700 mm (106.30 in)
Overall length:
4,780 mm (188.19 in)
Overall width (excluding mirrors):
2,030 mm (79.92 in)
Overall width (including mirrors):
2,265 mm (89.17 in)
Overall height:
1,136 mm (44.72 in)
Front track:
1,720 mm (67.72 in)
Rear track:
1,700 mm (66.93 in)
Dry weight:
1,575 kg (3,472 lb)
Weight/Power:
2.25 kg/HP (4.96 lb/HP)
Weight distribution (front - rear):
43 % - 57 %

Capacities

Fuel tank capacity:
90 l (23.8 gal.)
Engine oil capacity:
13 l (3.4 gal.)
Engine coolant capacity:
25 l (6.6 gal.)

Fuel consumption *

Urban cycle consumption:
27.3 l/100 km
Extra urban consumption:
11.3 l/100 km
Combined consumption:
17.2 l/100 km
CO2 emission:
398 g/km

Lamborgini Gallardo

 Lamborghini's 'entry-level' car, the Gallardo LP560-4, has been updated for the latest model year with a slight exterior restyling. The changes should help the model retain its best-selling status among the Italian supercar maker's stable of offerings.

The front fascia gets more triangles in its corners, which are really feeds for the brake-cooling ducts. The rear bumper is also much more angular, though here, the taillights are changed as well. There are new 19-inch wheels as well, covered with an Apollo Polish. The rear spoiler is electronically controlled and rises at speed to enhance traction.
 


The engine remains untouched, with the same 5.2-liter 10-cylinder in a V configuration that pumps out a fiery 552 horsepower at 8,000 rpm and 398 ft-lbs of torque at 6,500 rpm. That's enough power to hit 62 mph in an impressive 4.0 seconds, according to Lamborghini's own estimates and reach on a top speed of 201mph. It's paired exclusively with E-gear, the automaker's six-speed, automated-manual transmission with two shift paddles instead of a third pedal. For those wishing to operate three pedals and row for themselves, Lamborghini will offer them a manual in the other, more performance-oriented versions of the Gallardo.

All that power then travels to all four wheels, as the 4 in the model name indicates. Each of the 19-inch wheels puts down a big footprint, with the fronts being 235mm wide and the rears 295mm. When the smallest bull needs to be reigned in, it relies on eight-piston front calipers squeezing 14.4-inch discs up front and 4-piston, 14-inch brakes in the rear.

Fuel economy - hardly a priority in this class - is rated at 13/20 with the E-gear city/highway, and 16mpg overall.

Those looking for a wind-in-your-hair experience should check out the Gallardo LP560-4 Spyder.

Wednesday, 3 October 2012

Rolls Royce Ghost Six Senses


The Rolls Royce Ghost Six Senses concept can be defined as richness included in the purest kind. If its final luxury you're looking for, you can be assured that this Ghost Six Senses will not are not able to deliver. Rolls Royce has claimed that the thought vehicle is designed plus produced to help appeal to an individual's sensory awareness and this just might hold correct. However, that may again depend on how much (or even little, which can be unlikely) of the fan you happen to be of the businesses luxury shows. The Half a dozen Senses thought was launched at the Beijing Auto Show while using the intention of getting luxury indulgence to an all-new amount.

Rolls Royce Ghost Six Senses shown at Beijing Auto Show 2012

 

PLANET FORMATION IN OUR SOLAR SYSTEM MAY HAVE BEEN STAGGERED

New research by Tagir Abdylmyanov, an associate professor from Kazan State Power Engineering University in Russia, suggests our solar system’s planets may have formed at differing times, which were determined by shock waves which came flowing from the young sun. The research also suggests Earth, Mercury, Venus and Mars are the youngest planets in the solar system. This work presents a new way in which scientists can predict where planets form in young solar systems.

Abdylmyanov based his work on a solar system formation theory proposed by Japanese astrophysicists in 1985 in the book "Protostars and Planets II”. In it, the Japanese scientists suggested that the solar system began with a solar nebula that gradually evolved to form clumps of dust that gelled to make protoplanets and then planets. Abdylmyanov adapted his own mathematical models to take this previous research even further, by suggesting the planets formed at different times instead of all at the same time.

Abdylmyanov modelled the movement of particles in fluids and gases inside the gas cloud from which our sun formed and theorised that the movements of this material would have created shockwaves as the sun evolved. His work suggests that each series of shockwaves created a series of debris rings around the sun that accreted over millions of years into planets. The modern distance between the orbits of the planets is assumed to be the result of the action of the shock waves and the solar activity when the star was forming.

The first series of shockwaves, which came from short but very rapid changes in solar activity, would have created the protoplanetary rings for Uranus, Neptune and dwarf planet Pluto, very close in time to the sun’s birth. 3 million years later, less powerful shockwaves created the debris ring which ultimately became Saturn, and then 500,000 years later Jupiter’s debris ring may have formed. Shock waves about a million years after that, when the sun was far calmer, created the asteroid belt; 500,000 years after that would see the creation of the protoplanetary rings for Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars.

Abdylmyanov’s research also shows that gas and dust accretions could have caused accelerated planetary formation from the protoplanetary rings. This would likely favour the formation of only one planet from that ring, rather than several.

Scientists can study the brightness of stars in the process of forming to find indications as to the intensity of the stellar shock waves, and then may be able to predict the location of planets around stars millions of years before they have formed.




Bugatti Veryon -17.4 Grand Sport Vitesse The year 2013

The Bugatti Veyron 17.4 Grand Sport Vitesse The year 2013 is the carmaker's top goal involved with bringing this achievements of your Super Sport at the convertible, defining it as the fastest van of its classification in the world. Unsurprisingly a top lower version on the Super Sport will take quite a lot of considering and archaeologist, but Bugatti is not an stranger within the concept of breaking the limits and exceeding goals.The sports car is commited by the 8.0 liter W16 engine that generates no more or maybe less than 1100 horsepower for 6400 RPM, along with an astonishing 1106 lb-ft from torque through 3000 that will 5000 Revoltions per minute. Evidently any Grand Sport shares several other parts with the Very Sportincluding the four even larger turbochargers, the intercooler and the quad fuel air pump setup in order to name a few.Relating to performance I do think there's no puzzle here. That Grand Sport goes out of 0 for you to 60 miles-per-hour in under Couple of.6 secs, from a grinding halt to 124 mph in only 5.1 mere seconds and by 0 to be able to 186 in 17 seconds. Just what about the top notch speed? The Grand Sport can go up to successfully 255 mph, reliable a bit of a hook. Evidently the rooftop needs to be upon in order to achieve topping speed, owing to the roof along the aerodynamics modify and it is affecting how the supercar runs on the road. Still, Bugatti had to implement a few improvements when the top is shut off. For instance, a corner wing has learned when the hardtop may be detached plus it changes its angle as a way to increase downforce and aerodynamics. They additionally had to restrict the car's top momentum while in sports car mode in order to 233 mph.Apparently in order to achieve these kinds of performance you'll want to burn a number of fuel for pretty sure the fact that whoever plans on buying a Grand Sport will not take into account fuel efficiency while this, but just to present you with an idea of exactly how extreme this specific piece of engineering is, by full reduce the 8 liter W16 may burn it happens to be entire water tank of 27.4 gallons connected with gas on eight a few minutes and will gulp more environment in one per hour than a people in one 30 days.As is custom, the Grand Sport has generated with no skimp and you still obtain the same higher level of luxury found in the previous models. It's really a civilized sporty car and offers a pleasant place to rest in. Everything appears perfect and even from the moment you fire up the serps to the role where you decide to put your ft down on the carbon-ceramic brakes, all of the Vitesse manages to impress quite a bit a lot more than the one-trick-pony supercars we will used, many of these asLamborghinis and Ferraris.Having said that, it all is available at a price and then the Bugatti Veyron 16.Check out Grand Sport Vitesse 2013 seems to impress despite the presence of its anticipated base price of $2.5 million, in which seems just as out of this world as the car / truck itself.
 
 


Monday, 1 October 2012

TITAN HAS SEASONAL CHANGES


Saturn’s Moon Titan has been subject to detailed observations for 30 years now, which covers one solar orbit for the planet. Scientists lead by Dr Athena Coustenis from the Paris-Meudon Observatory in France, have analysed data gathered over these years and found that the changing seasons of Titan affect it more than previously thought.

The recent analysis has shown that there are seasonal changes in atmospheric temperatures, chemical composition and circulation patterns, particularly at the poles. Hydrocarbon lakes form around the northern polar region during winter because of colder temperatures and condensation. The haze layer around the northern pole is also significantly reduced during the equinox because of the atmospheric circulation patterns.

The dominant energy source, and also the main cause of these cycles, is solar radiation. This radiation breaks up the nitrogen and methane present and creates more complex molecules like ethane. Titan is inclined at 27 degrees which is similar to Earth’s inclination, meaning the seasons on both worlds are caused by sunlight reaching different areas with varying intensity due to the tilt.

Data was analysed from many different missions, including Voyager 1 (1980), the Infrared Space Observatory (1997), and Cassini (2004 onward), and was also complemented by ground-based observations. The seasons on Titan each span around 7.5 years and it takes 29.5 years for Saturn to orbit the Sun.

The image is an impression of Titan’s surface, based on data from the Huygens mission, giving an idea the view from the ground.

Photo: TITAN HAS SEASONAL CHANGES

Saturn’s Moon Titan has been subject to detailed observations for 30 years now, which covers one solar orbit for the planet. Scientists lead by Dr Athena Coustenis from the Paris-Meudon Observatory in France, have analysed data gathered over these years and found that the changing seasons of Titan affect it more than previously thought.

The recent analysis has shown that there are seasonal changes in atmospheric temperatures, chemical composition and circulation patterns, particularly at the poles. Hydrocarbon lakes form around the northern polar region during winter because of colder temperatures and condensation. The haze layer around the northern pole is also significantly reduced during the equinox because of the atmospheric circulation patterns.

The dominant energy source, and also the main cause of these cycles, is solar radiation. This radiation breaks up the nitrogen and methane present and creates more complex molecules like ethane. Titan is inclined at 27 degrees which is similar to Earth’s inclination, meaning the seasons on both worlds are caused by sunlight reaching different areas with varying intensity due to the tilt. 

Data was analysed from many different missions, including Voyager 1 (1980), the Infrared Space Observatory (1997), and Cassini (2004 onward), and was also complemented by ground-based observations. The seasons on Titan each span around 7.5 years and it takes 29.5 years for Saturn to orbit the Sun.

The image is an impression of Titan’s surface, based on data from the Huygens mission, giving an idea the view from the ground. 

See our previous post on whether life would be possible on Titan here: http://on.fb.me/PjvIk1

-TEL

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/09/120928085222.htm
Image credit: Cassini-Huygens DISR

WASP-12B: THE HOTTEST KNOWN EXOPLANET


WASP 12b is located around a star 867 light years away from Earth in the constellation Auriga. It was discovered in 2008 and is currently the hottest known exoplanet, with a surface temperature of about 2,200°C (4,000°F). It is almost twice the size of Jupiter and orbits about 3.4 million kilometres out from its parent star; as the planet is so close to its star, the star’s gravity pulls it into a slight egg like shape. In contrast, Earth orbits about 150 million kilometres out from the sun. WASP-12b orbits its parent star once every Earth day.

On May 20, 2010, the Hubble Space Telescope spotted WASP-12b being consumed by its star. While scientists had been aware of such phenomena, this was the first time such an event had been observed so clearly. It is estimated that the planet has 10 million years left of its life. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope discovered that WASP-12b has more carbon than oxygen, making it the first carbon-rich planet ever observed. As concentrated carbon can take the form of diamond, it is possible that carbon-rich gas planets could have abundant diamond in their interiors.
Also in 2010, scientists at the Open University found that WASP-12b's parent star dimmed at times when the exoplanet passed in front of the star as seen from Earth sooner in ultraviolet wavelengths than in optical wavelengths during transits. At the time the astronomers thought the signal was from a cloud of material being stripped away from the planet by the parent star. Astronomers inferred that the planet had a magnetosphere, based on observations using the Hubble Space Telescope.

In 2011, Aline Vidotto and Ph.D. student Joe Llama used computer simulations to see whether the planet might create compress the material in front of it to create a bowshock ahead of it, acting like a shield which protects it while it journeys through a supersonic headwind while orbiting so close to its parent star. The star that WASP-12b orbits is a yellow dwarf that spews out charged particles much like the sun's solar wind. The researchers simulated magnetic fields for the planet and then observed the interactions between the magnetic fields and the solar wind streaming from the nearby star.

Research such as this gives astronomers another tool with which to measure the strength of planetary magnetic fields. The team has been able to examine other exoplanets and found that their orbital conditions would allow a similar bowshock; bowshocks could be more common than previously thought.

The image is an artist’s impression of WASP-12b, showing the star's gravity pulling material off the planet into a disk around the star.

Photo: WASP-12B: THE HOTTEST KNOWN EXOPLANET

WASP 12b is located around a star 867 light years away from Earth in the constellation Auriga. It was discovered in 2008 and is currently the hottest known exoplanet, with a surface temperature of about 2,200°C (4,000°F). It is almost twice the size of Jupiter and orbits about 3.4 million kilometres out from its parent star; as the planet is so close to its star, the star’s gravity pulls it into a slight egg like shape. In contrast, Earth orbits about 150 million kilometres out from the sun. WASP-12b orbits its parent star once every Earth day. 

On May 20, 2010, the Hubble Space Telescope spotted WASP-12b being consumed by its star. While scientists had been aware of such phenomena, this was the first time such an event had been observed so clearly. It is estimated that the planet has 10 million years left of its life. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope discovered that WASP-12b has more carbon than oxygen, making it the first carbon-rich planet ever observed. As concentrated carbon can take the form of diamond, it is possible that carbon-rich gas planets could have abundant diamond in their interiors. 

Also in 2010, scientists at the Open University found that WASP-12b's parent star dimmed at times when the exoplanet passed in front of the star as seen from Earth sooner in ultraviolet wavelengths than in optical wavelengths during transits. At the time the astronomers thought the signal was from a cloud of material being stripped away from the planet by the parent star. Astronomers inferred that the planet had a magnetosphere, based on observations using the Hubble Space Telescope. 

In 2011, Aline Vidotto and Ph.D. student Joe Llama used computer simulations to see whether the planet might create compress the material in front of it to create a bowshock ahead of it, acting like a shield which protects it while it journeys through a supersonic headwind while orbiting so close to its parent star. The star that WASP-12b orbits is a yellow dwarf that spews out charged particles much like the sun's solar wind. The researchers simulated magnetic fields for the planet and then observed the interactions between the magnetic fields and the solar wind streaming from the nearby star. 

Research such as this gives astronomers another tool with which to measure the strength of planetary magnetic fields. The team has been able to examine other exoplanets and found that their orbital conditions would allow a similar bowshock; bowshocks could be more common than previously thought.  

The image is an artist’s impression of WASP-12b, showing the star's gravity pulling material off the planet into a disk around the star. 

-TEL

http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/spitzer/multimedia/pia13691.html; http://www.space.com/11427-hot-alien-planet-wasp12b-shockwave.html
Image credit: NASA, ESA, and G. Bacon (STScI) STScI-PRC2010-15

EQUINOX TRAILS

This image was captured by Juan Carlos Casado, taken from Teide Observatory (IAC) in the Canary Islands. The image was taken during the spring equinox of 2010, using a full format DSLR with a fisheye lens, placed in a fixed position toward the west. The photographer first made exposures for the Sun every 30 seconds with a solar filter placed on the lens for the duration of about 6 hours (the bold rectilinear trail is the sun). After the sun set, exposures were made continuously (30 seconds each) to capture the motion of stars for about 5 hours. All images were then combined on the computer, and the distortion from the fisheye was also fixed.

The image you see is the result: the sun is passing the celestial equator while startrails on each celestial hemisphere (North and South) are curved in the opposite direction. The North Star (Polaris) is to the right of the image, above the solar laboratory "Pyramid Van der Raay" (known as Pyramid). The Teide Volcano (3,710 metres height) is in the background and La Palma Island is on the horizon

Photo: EQUINOX TRAILS

This image was captured by Juan Carlos Casado, taken from Teide Observatory (IAC) in the Canary Islands. The image was taken during the spring equinox of 2010, using a full format DSLR with a fisheye lens, placed in a fixed position toward the west. The photographer first made exposures for the Sun every 30 seconds with a solar filter placed on the lens for the duration of about 6 hours (the bold rectilinear trail is the sun). After the sun set, exposures were made continuously (30 seconds each) to capture the motion of stars for about 5 hours. All images were then combined on the computer, and the distortion from the fisheye was also fixed.

The image you see is the result: the sun is passing the celestial equator while startrails on each celestial hemisphere (North and South) are curved in the opposite direction. The North Star (Polaris) is to the right of the image, above the solar laboratory "Pyramid Van der Raay" (known as Pyramid). The Teide Volcano (3,710 metres height) is in the background and La Palma Island is on the horizon. 

-TEL

http://www.twanight.org/newtwan/photos.asp?ID=3002629&Sort=Photographer
Photo: Juan Carlos Casado   Starryearth.com

Thursday, 27 September 2012

Java Lesson 2 "Working with Operators"

The Java programming language has includes five simple arithmetic operators like are + (addition), - (subtraction), * (multiplication), / (division), and % (modulo). The following table summarizes the binary arithmetic operators in the Java programming language.

The relation operators in Java are: ==, !=, <, >, <=, and >=. The meanings of these operators are:

Use Returns true if
op1 + op2 op1 added to op2
op1 - op2 op2 subtracted from op1
op1 * op2 op1 multiplied with op2
op1 / op2 op1 divided by op2
op1 % op2 Computes the remainder of dividing op1 by op2
The following java program, ArithmeticProg , defines two integers and two double-precision floating-point numbers and uses the five arithmetic operators to perform different arithmetic operations. This program also uses + to concatenate strings. The arithmetic operations are shown in boldface.

Program:

public class Arithmeticoperator {


public static void main(String[] args) {

int i=10;
int j=20;
double x=10.5;
double y=20.5;

System.out.println("addition");
System.out.println("i+j = "+(i+j));
System.out.println("x+y = "+(x+y));

System.out.println("subtraction");
System.out.println("i-j ="+(i-j));
System.out.println("x-y ="+(x-y));

System.out.println("multiplication");
System.out.println("i*j ="+(i*j));
System.out.println("x*j ="+(x*j));

System.out.println("division");
System.out.println("i/j ="+(i/j));
System.out.println("x/y ="+(x/y));

System.out.println("reminder");
System.out.println("i%j ="+(i/j));
System.out.println("x%j ="+(x%y));

}

}

Output:

addition
i+j = 30
x+y = 31.0
subtraction
i-j =-10
x-y =-10.0
multiplication
i*j =200
x*j =210.0
division
i/j =0
x/y =0.5121951219512195
reminder
i%j =0
x%j =10.5

Tuesday, 25 September 2012

Java Lesson 1- Welcome to Crazyscience Family

Our first lesson is an extremely simple program which priints " Welcome to Crazyscience Family". The about mentioned sequence of words will be printed in java.

Java Program is defined by public class that takes the form:


Syntax:

       public class program-name
       {
       optional variable declarations and methods
       public static void main(String[] args);
       {
       Statements
       }
       optional variable declaration and methods
       }

Program:
   
  This program explains the method to print "welcome to Crazyscience Family" using java. write the program in a notepad and save it as crazyscience.java and then import to the java software and run it to display the result.

public class Crazyscience
{
public static void main(String[] args)
{
System.out.println("Welcome to Crazyscience Family");
}
}

For any errors and doubts, please feel free to mail at jjenishmech@gmail.com

Download the free java software through the link below

Java Software Link

What is Java?

Java is a programming language originally developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems (which has since merged into Oracle Corporation) and released in 1995 as a core component of Sun Microsystems' Java platform. The language derives much of its syntax from C and C++ but has a simpler object model and fewer low-level facilities than either C or C++. Java applications are typically compiled to bytecode (class file) that can run on any Java Virtual Machine (JVM) regardless of computer architecture. Java is a general-purpose, concurrent, class-based, object-oriented language that is specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. It is intended to let application developers "write once, run anywhere" (WORA), meaning that code that runs on one platform does not need to be recompiled to run on another. Java is as of 2012 one of the most popular programming languages in use, particularly for client-server web applications, with a reported 10 million users.

Monday, 24 September 2012

What is WIFI


Wi-Fi is the name of a popular wireless networking technology that uses radio waves to provide wireless high-speed Internet and network connections. A common misconception is that the term Wi-Fi is short for "wireless fidelity," however this is not the case. Wi-Fi is simply a trademarked term meaning IEEE 802.11x.



The Wi-Fi Alliance, the organization that owns the Wi-Fi (registered trademark) term specifically defines Wi-Fi as any "wireless local area network (WLAN) products that are based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' (IEEE) 802.11 standards."

What is Internet and How it actually works?

The history of internet Began in the 1950s as a point to point communication between mainframe computers which was used for defence purpose. The internet was first developed by ARPANET, an American Company. The U.S defence administration used this facility to communicate at the time of emergency and other security related matters.
 Internet works by 2 concepts (TCP/IP)

TCP is Transmission Control Protocol: a protocol developed for the internet to get data from one network device to another; "TCP uses a retransmission strategy to insure that data will not be lost in transmission"
IP is Internet Protocol: the method by which information is sent between any two Internet computers on the Internet; the information is transferred to computers by using Internet Protocol address



Since the mid-1990s the Internet has had a drastic impact on culture and commerce, including the rise of near-instant communication by electronic mail, instant messaging, Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) "phone calls", two-way interactive video calls, and the World Wide Web with its discussion forums, blogs, social networking, and online shopping sites. The research and education community continues to develop and use advanced networks such as NSF's very high speed Backbone Network Service (vBNS), Internet2, and National LambdaRail. Increasing amounts of data are transmitted at higher and higher speeds over fiber optic networks operating at 1-Gbit/s, 10-Gbit/s, or more. The Internet continues to grow, driven by ever greater amounts of online information and knowledge, commerce, entertainment and social networking.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, USA

Mammoth Cave in Mammoth National Park is part of the longest cave system in the world, and is a world heritage site.The caves have formed in thick deposits of carboniferous limestone, with a sandstone cap-rock. With over 630 km of passageways and cave, the National Park was established to help preserve and protect the cave system. New discoveries are adding distance to the cave system every year. The Geology of the caves has been put together really well in the documentary "Geology of Mammoth Cave, Kentucky", by University Students at Ohio State.

"TRILLIONS OF CARATS" OF DIAMONDS


The Siberian branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences has revealed that the 100 kilometre wide Popigai Astroblem crater, from a meteorite which hit Earth 35 million years ago, contains a dense deposit of industrial diamonds (good for technological purposes but not jewelry). The deposit was apparently discovered in the 1970’s, but the Soviets decided to keep it a secret so that they didn’t upset a world diamond market that already favoured them. Nikolai Pokhilenko, the head of the Geological and Mineralogical Institute in Novosibirsk, has said that the diamonds include other molecular forms of carbon, and that they could be twice as hard as conventional diamonds. He said the Popigai diamonds could revolutionise the global market in industrial diamonds.

 

There are two main explanations for the formation of ‘impact diamonds’, found in small quantities at meteorite-impact sites around the Earth. If a meteor slams into an area rich with carbon, like the remains of living organisms, then the high pressures and temperatures of the collision would be enough to turn the terrestrial carbon into diamond. Another possibility is that the carbon arrives on Earth inside the meteorite, and is then flash-fused into diamonds on impact. There have been discoveries of meteorites embedded with tiny diamonds, but neither of the scenarios posited is known to create the amount of diamonds that Russia claims has been discovered.

Friday, 21 September 2012

Top 10 automobile Companies in 2012

10. Renault

Renault is one of the leading automobile manufacturers of the world present in 118 countries. It has worldwide sales of over 2.5 million vehicles and a total workforce of 130,000 employees.

 Top Car 10

9. Hyundai Motors

Hyundai is one of the fastest growing brands in the automobile industry  and is currently among the top 10 in the global market. Hyundai vehicles are sold in 193 countries through some 6,000 dealerships and showrooms worldwide through 75,000 employees.

Top Car 9

8. Nissan Motors

Nissan is one of the global manufacturers in the automobile with its brands spread all over the world. Nissan Motor Company has over 155,000 employees and has manufacturing locations in Japan, India, Brazil, Spain, Thailand, USA, Malaysia and other countries

Top Car 8

7. General Motors

American automobile giant General Motors employs 200,000 people and has its business in over 150 countries. Brands like Chevrolet, Buick, Cadillac, GMC are the divisions of General Motors, making it one of the top auto manufacturers in the world

Top Car 7

6. BMW Group

German luxury automobile manufacturer BMW is the leading automobile brand in the world. It has over 100,000 employees and is one of the top inspirational brand with an extremely high brand recall and strong global brand presence

Top Car 8

5. Honda Motors

 Honda is one of the largest automobile manufacturer in the world selling cars in over a 100 countries and having over 180,000 employees globally. It has a strong global presence with 35 major manufacturing facilities located throughout Brazil, Mexico, the USA, Canada, Japan, Indonesia, India, China and other countries

Top Car 5

4. Ford Motors

Ford is one of the most popular and biggest car manufacturer having its sales in almost all the countries worldwide. From fun-to-drive, fuel-efficient cars to flexible, capable utility vehicles and rough, strong trucks that, Ford offers a full line of high-quality products with global appeal.

Top Car 4

3. Daimler

Daimler AG is one of the world’s leading automotive companies. With its divisions Mercedes-Benz Cars, Daimler Trucks and Daimler Financial Services, it is one of the biggest producers of first-class cars and the world’s major producer of commercial vehicles with a global appeal.

Top Car 3

2. Toyoto Motors

Toyota Motor company is a leader in the automobile business having manufacture and sale of car products, including sedans, minivans, SUVs and trucks, as well as the related parts and accessories. Lexus and Scion are also sub-brands in the TMC which has an employee workforce of over 320,000 people.

Top Car 2

1. Volkswagen 

With more than half a million employees globally and sales world over, Volkswagen group is one of the leading automobile brands in the world. Audi, Bentley, Bugatti, Lamborghini, Skoda are the sub-brands of the VW group, which within themselves are power brands. 

Top Car 01 

What is an Automobile

An automobile is a self-propelled motor wheeled vehicle which runs by the combustion of fuel. It is primarily used for  transportation of people and goods. Automobiles are mainly designed for running on roads. But now-a-days the deficit of fuel had made the companies to develop hybrid cars which runs by both fuel and electricity.

A Hybrid car model 

 

Thursday, 20 September 2012

Into the Universe with Hawkings

The Legend Mr. Stephen Hawkings is the former Lucasian professor of mathematics at Cambridge University and the author of the Famous Book "A Brief History of Time" which was an international Best seller. Now he is the Director of Research at the Institute for Theoritical Cosmology at the same Cambridge University. His other books include A Briefer History of Time ,Black Holes,Baby Universe and The Universe in a Nutshell .



 In 1963, unfortunately he was attacked by motor neurone disease which detoriates his upper and lower motor neurons and any person affected from this disease may live only about 2-5 years but his greatness, he is alive til now.Yet His Passion towards cosmology made him to become a brilliant rearcher and Professorial Fellow at Gonville and Caius College. Since 1979 he has held the post of Lucasian Professor at Cambridge, the chair held by Isaac Newton in 1663. Professor Hawking has over a dozen honorary degrees and was awarded the CBE in 1982. He is a fellow of the Royal Society and a Member of the US National Academy of Science. Stephen Hawking is regarded as one of the most brilliant theoretical physicists since Einstein.

Tuesday, 18 September 2012

Windows 8 (an overview)

The latest up gradation of windows operating syatem is Windows 8 which provides a new environment between you and the computer and of course has better performance with perfect repairing tools and some excellent new tools and options in windows store.Windows 8 has captured the minds of people essentially by making a small mix over its design. lets learn something about Win 8.

you can download Windows 8 preview through the link  http://windows.microsoft.com/en-US/windows-8/download
The start screen

When you log-on to windows 8 world, you will be quite surprised to see the new start menu which has been replaced from the previous menu. This looks so colourful menu which looks so good in appearance but also user-friendly.

The Start menu provided easy access to every aspect of your system, for instance: search, Windows tools, settings, installed programs, recent documents and more. There simply isn't room to display all this on the Start Screen, though, and so many functions have now been scattered around the system, making them much harder to find.

Windows 7 vs Windows 8: what you'll need to relearn

The notable thing about windows 8 is there is no control panel option. But the user doesnt misses anything. Start Screen can be used as a customization menu providing all the settings. Probabily many used will not find it but its actually in the top-left corner of the screen. Just move the cursor over there and you will find the settings menu.

 But itis not a bad option. Fortunately the Start Screen does include a simple menu which provides easy access to some system tools: Control Panel, Task Manager, the Command Prompt and more (press Win+X to see it).


Windows 8 control panel

  

 And better still, if you press Win+F, or just start typing a search term, then you'll launch the Windows 8 search tool. Type "Note", say, to see a link for Notepad, or type part of a recent document name to list that file. And if you ever find yourself unable to figure out how to perform some task, just type a relevant term - "shut down", say - and click Settings for more helpful links.
These techniques aren't a complete solution, of course. If anything, they present some issues of their own. When we search right now, for instance, Windows 7 displays matches for Control Panel, Documents, Pictures, Music and Files, all on the same display.

Windows 8 displays results only for Apps, Settings or Files, though, and while there are many more options available (News, Travel, Store, more) it takes an extra click to view each one.
Still, the Win+X menu should reduce your initial frustrations, and if you find you're still lost then the Search tool does a reasonable job of tracking down the information you need.

Windows 8 start screen 


Task Management
One notable problem with Windows 8 is that it tried to bring together two largely separate worlds: one for the programs you're running now, and another for its Start Screen apps. And this can complicate the way you work. Let's take task management as an example.

If you want to launch a regular Windows program, for instance, then clicking the Start Screen "Desktop" tile will launch something which looks much like the Windows 7 desktop (less the Start menu, anyway). Run programs here, matching buttons will appear on the taskbar and you'll be able to switch between them with a click, as you can now. But you won't see buttons for any Start Screen apps you have running. It's as though they don't exist.

Switch metro

Press the Windows key to switch back to the Start screen and everything changes. You can launch multiple apps, but there's no taskbar to switch between them, so instead you must move your mouse cursor to the top left corner of the screen to see the previously used app, then drag down to see all the others. And while this will show you the desktop as one of the apps, you won't be able to switch directly to a specific program which you've launched from there.
Again, there is a sort-of solution here: just use Alt+Tab. This displays all your programs on a single screen, whether desktop or Start Screen-based, and allows you to switch to the one you need. But this may not necessarily be straightforward - switching from one running program to the next might take a while, especially if you've lots of Metro apps running in the background - and the underlying problems still remain.

Windows 8 Alt+Tab

The taskbar isn't as reliable a way to show running programs in Windows 8; users have to learn a whole new Start Screen task management technique which is similarly incomplete; and so even simple task switching can require a little more thought and effort than it did before.
That's just the start, though. The real problem with Metro apps comes when you want to run them alongside something else, because by default they run full-screen. It's possible to run two alongside each other, if your screen resolution is high enough (move the mouse to the top of the screen, click, drag and drop the thumbnail to the left to move one app to a sidebar, then run another), but that's your limit.

Windows 8 snap

While the desktop still allows you to run multiple regular applications next to each other, in windows sized and positioned to suit your needs, that simply can't be done in the Metro world.
These issues won't be a major concern for everyone, of course. If you live solely on the desktop, or make only occasional visits to the Start Screen then they may not bother you at all. But the fact remains that Metro apps are very inflexible in how they can be displayed, and as Microsoft seem to think they're the future then you may not be able to avoid that problem forever.While the desktop still allows you to run multiple regular applications next to each other, in windows sized and positioned to suit your needs, that simply can't be done in the Metro world.
These issues won't be a major concern for everyone, of course. If you live solely on the desktop, or make only occasional visits to the Start Screen then they may not bother you at all. But the fact remains that Metro apps are very inflexible in how they can be displayed, and as Microsoft seem to think they're the future then you may not be able to avoid that problem forever.

 Interfacing Issues

 Another Windows 8 irritation comes in the way it sometimes splits functionality between similar Metro and desktop tools. There's an Internet Explorer app on the Start Screen, for instance, but it doesn't have all the functionality of the desktop version. And there's no way to switch from one to the other.
Or maybe you'd like to customise the look of your PC? You might launch "Personalize" in the Start Screen's PC settings, or maybe "Ease of Access". But there are more options in the full Control Panel's "Appearance and Personalisation" and "Ease of Access Centre". Again, the Search tool can help, but of course you only need to use that so often because Windows 8 has added these extra complexities in the first place.

Windows 8 search

Install applications and you'll discover other issues. In the past, if programs added ten items to the Start Menu, say, it wouldn't matter as they were neatly hidden in a Start menu folder. Now, though, many are automatically pinned to the Start Screen as separate tiles, so you're likely to spend rather more time manually removing any you don't need (right-click, select Unpin...).
And even figuring out how to close Metro programs can pose another challenge. There's no "x" top-right, no "File > Exit" option, because Microsoft's intention is that Metro programs should happily run in the background until the system decides they can be closed (if your PC needs more resources, say).

You can shut them down with the mouse, though: just move your mouse cursor to the top of the screen until it changes to a hand icon, then click, hold, and drag it to the bottom of the screen. But as usual with Metro, there are no interface cues to even show you this is possible. And so the best approach might just be to press Alt+F4, which always closes the active program, whether you're on the desktop or running a Metro application.

Windows 8 surplus tiles

This, and many of the other Windows 8 problems we've raised are mostly just a matter of familiarity. They may be confusing at first, and perhaps take an extra click or two, but once you've learned the basics then life will mostly return to normal.

you can download Windows 8 preview through the link  http://windows.microsoft.com/en-US/windows-8/download

Monday, 17 September 2012

Boundaries of Bermuda Triangle

The boundaries of bermuda triangle covers the Straits of Florida, the Bahamas and the Atlantic east to the Azores. And the most accidents were found concentrated in the Bahamas and the Florida Straits. The area is one of the most intemperatively travelled shipping lanes in the world, essentaily the ships crossing for their ports in America, Europe and Caribbean Islands. It is also a heavily travelled air route towards Florida, Caribbean and South America.

Bermuda Triangle

Bermuda Triangle is one of the most popular mystries of the world. Its right to say it as devil's triangle which is situated in the western part of North Atlantic Ocean. The place carries several unexplained questions and cases about missing of aircraft and ships.



The first person who documented about bermuda triangle is Gian J Quasar. His research accomplished about 20 years and he filed large private repository of reports and official documents containing 350 cases over centuries. Of them most were dissapearance cases that has last only 25 years. 

Thursday, 13 September 2012

What is Binomial Nomenclature

It is a system of naming all living organism in two parts. The two parts are named Genus and Species which are derived only from Latin. The first letter of the Genus name Should always be in Capital while the Species name should begin with Small letter.

Example:-  Binomial name of Human is Homo sapiens

                                                     Homo   - Genus
                                                    sapiens -  species

Wednesday, 12 September 2012

Planetary Nebula


This is a composite colour Hubble image of NGC 6751, a planetary nebula with complex features. It is 6,500 light years away in the constellation Aquila. The diameter of the nebula is around 0.8 light years (600 times the size of our solar system).

The colours represent the relative temperatures of the gas; blue, orange and red indicate the hottest to coolest gas. The streamer-like features of the nebula were created by winds and radiation from the central star, which at 140,000°C is rather hot.

The name planetary nebula is something of a misnomer. Planetary nebulae are shells of gas ejected by Sun-like stars nearing the ends of their lives. This gas ejection exposes the hot stellar core; the ultraviolet radiation causes the gas to fluoresce as the planetary nebula.

Photo: NGC 6751 

This is a composite colour Hubble image of NGC 6751, a planetary nebula with complex features. It is 6,500 light years away in the constellation Aquila. The diameter of the nebula is around 0.8 light years (600 times the size of our solar system).

The colours represent the relative temperatures of the gas; blue, orange and red indicate the hottest to coolest gas. The streamer-like features of the nebula were created by winds and radiation from the central star, which at 140,000°C is rather hot. 

The name planetary nebula is something of a misnomer. Planetary nebulae are shells of gas ejected by Sun-like stars nearing the ends of their lives. This gas ejection exposes the hot stellar core; the ultraviolet radiation causes the gas to fluoresce as the planetary nebula.

-TEL

http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap050416.html; http://www.spacetelescope.org/images/opo0012a/
Image credit: A. Hajian (USNO) et al., Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/ AURA), NASA/ESA,

The Constellation Cygnus

This image is a mosaic, showing clouds of colourful gas and dark lanes of dust. The light from the gas and dust is too faint for the human eye to see; long exposure times and special filters were used.

Cygnus is a northern constellation which lies on the plane of the Milky Way; the name is the Latin word for swan. It was first catalogued by the 2nd century astronomer Ptolemy; it is one of the 88 modern constellations. The constellation contains the Northern Cross, Cygnus X-1, the stars Deneb and Albireo, the Fireworks Galaxy, the Pelican Nebula, the North American Nebula, the Crescent Nebula, and the Veil Nebula.

Cygnus is the 16th largest constellation in the night sky, and occupies an area of 804 square degrees. It is in the fourth quadrant of the northern hemisphere (NQ4) and can be seen at latitudes between +90° and -40°.

Photo: CONSTELLATION OF CYGNUS

This image is a mosaic, showing clouds of colourful gas and dark lanes of dust. The light from the gas and dust is too faint for the human eye to see; long exposure times and special filters were used. 

Cygnus is a northern constellation which lies on the plane of the Milky Way; the name is the Latin word for swan. It was first catalogued by the 2nd century astronomer Ptolemy; it is one of the 88 modern constellations. The constellation contains the Northern Cross, Cygnus X-1, the stars Deneb and Albireo, the Fireworks Galaxy, the Pelican Nebula, the North American Nebula, the Crescent Nebula, and the Veil Nebula.

Cygnus is the 16th largest constellation in the night sky, and occupies an area of 804 square degrees. It is in the fourth quadrant of the northern hemisphere (NQ4) and can be seen at latitudes between +90° and -40°.

-TEL

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/gallery/2012/sep/07/astronomy-photographer-year-2012-pictures?CMP=twt_fd#/?picture=395093963&index=5; http://www.constellation-guide.com/constellation-list/cygnus-constellation/
Image: J-P Mets vainio/Royal Observatory

Life May Exist on Titan


Saturn’s sixth and largest moon Titan has an average surface temperature of 94.2611Kelvin (-178.889°C or -290°F). Nitrogen comprises 98.4% of the atmosphere. Water is perpetually frozen; it can almost be considered a mineral. The seas of Titan are made up of hydrocarbons like methane, ethane, and some propane. The land masses are composed of frozen water and ammonia, which also exist in liquid states below Titan’s crust, much like silica and iron exist in liquid form below Earth’s crust.

Titan may still contain many of the components for life. Scientists have known for thirty years that complex carbon compounds called tholins exist on comets and in the atmosphere of the outer planets. In theory tholins could interact with water in a process called hydrolysis to produce complex molecules similar to those found on the early Earth; these compounds are called prebiotic. Titan is thought to be made mainly of ice; some of this ice may melt during meteor impacts or underground processes, producing ice volcanoes that eject lava made of ammonia mixed with water. Tholins could potentially react with this liquid water exposed by meteor impacts or ice volcanoes and produce probiotic organic molecules before the water freezes. Catherine Neish, a graduate student working on her doctorate in planetary science at the University of Arizona, showed that over a period of days, compounds similar to tholins can be hydrolysed at near-freezing temperatures. Liquid water exposed on Titan is believed to persist for hundreds to thousands of years.

Another study used data from NASA’s Cassini spacecraft. The craft detected large molecules at altitudes of some 965 km above Titan’s surface; but these molecules remained unidentified because of limitations of the craft’s instruments. Sarah Hörst, a graduate student in planetary science at the University of Arizona, led the research team that replicated the atmosphere of Titan in a large chamber at the temperatures present in the moon’s upper atmosphere. They used radio energy at a power level comparable to a moderately bright light bulb to simulate the sun’s ultraviolet light. UV light breaks up molecules like molecular nitrogen or carbon monoxide in Titan’s atmosphere, which leaves the individual atoms to choose different partners with which to form new molecules. The tiny aerosol particles produced by the experiment were run through a mass spectrometer, which is used to show the chemical formulae that make up the molecules within the aerosols. Hörst then ran these formulae past a roster of molecules known to be biologically important for life on Earth. She got 18 hits; 4 were nucleotides whose combinations form an organism’s genetic information encoded in DNA. It seemed it was more important for some form of oxygen to be present in the ingredients than it was for water to be present.

Billions of years ago Earth’s upper atmosphere may also have been the source for these "prebiotic" molecules, amino acids and the so-called nucleotide bases that make up DNA. Oxygen in early Earth history would have been in the form of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide from volcanic activity, as well as from water released by volcanism and meteor and comet impacts. The oxygen on Titan seems to be coming from Enceladus, another moon of Saturn that is home to icy geysers that eject ice into space near its south pole. The water molecules ejected from Enceladus’ geysers can be carried great distances through Saturn’s system; some oxygen bearing minerals from this find their way to Titan.

Photo: IS IT POSSIBLE FOR BASIC LIFE TO EXIST ON TITAN?

Saturn’s sixth and largest moon Titan has an average surface temperature of 94.2611Kelvin (-178.889°C or -290°F). Nitrogen comprises 98.4% of the atmosphere. Water is perpetually frozen; it can almost be considered a mineral. The seas of Titan are made up of hydrocarbons like methane, ethane, and some propane. The land masses are composed of frozen water and ammonia, which also exist in liquid states below Titan’s crust, much like silica and iron exist in liquid form below Earth’s crust. 

Titan may still contain many of the components for life. Scientists have known for thirty years that complex carbon compounds called tholins exist on comets and in the atmosphere of the outer planets. In theory tholins could interact with water in a process called hydrolysis to produce complex molecules similar to those found on the early Earth; these compounds are called prebiotic. Titan is thought to be made mainly of ice; some of this ice may melt during meteor impacts or underground processes, producing ice volcanoes that eject lava made of ammonia mixed with water. Tholins could potentially react with this liquid water exposed by meteor impacts or ice volcanoes and produce probiotic organic molecules before the water freezes. Catherine Neish, a graduate student working on her doctorate in planetary science at the University of Arizona, showed that over a period of days, compounds similar to tholins can be hydrolysed at near-freezing temperatures. Liquid water exposed on Titan is believed to persist for hundreds to thousands of years.

Another study used data from NASA’s Cassini spacecraft. The craft detected large molecules at altitudes of some 965 km above Titan’s surface; but these molecules remained unidentified because of limitations of the craft’s instruments. Sarah Hörst, a graduate student in planetary science at the University of Arizona, led the research team that replicated the atmosphere of Titan in a large chamber at the temperatures present in the moon’s upper atmosphere. They used radio energy at a power level comparable to a moderately bright light bulb to simulate the sun’s ultraviolet light. UV light breaks up molecules like molecular nitrogen or carbon monoxide in Titan’s atmosphere, which leaves the individual atoms to choose different partners with which to form new molecules. The tiny aerosol particles produced by the experiment were run through a mass spectrometer, which is used to show the chemical formulae that make up the molecules within the aerosols. Hörst then ran these formulae past a roster of molecules known to be biologically important for life on Earth. She got 18 hits; 4 were nucleotides whose combinations form an organism’s genetic information encoded in DNA. It seemed it was more important for some form of oxygen to be present in the ingredients than it was for water to be present.

Billions of years ago Earth’s upper atmosphere may also have been the source for these "prebiotic" molecules, amino acids and the so-called nucleotide bases that make up DNA. Oxygen in early Earth history would have been in the form of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide from volcanic activity, as well as from water released by volcanism and meteor and comet impacts. The oxygen on Titan seems to be coming from Enceladus, another moon of Saturn that is home to icy geysers that eject ice into space near its south pole. The water molecules ejected from Enceladus’ geysers can be carried great distances through Saturn’s system; some oxygen bearing minerals from this find their way to Titan.

It has been suggested by various scientists that Pitch Lake, in Trinidad and Tobago, is the closest thing on Earth to the kind of hydrocarbon lakes found on Titan. Single celled organisms like archaea and bacteria co-exist, thriving in the oxygen-free environment, eating hydrocarbons and respiring with metals: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=391607137567003&set=a.352867368107647.80532.352857924775258&type=3&theater.

-TEL

See our previous post on Titan here: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=369206723144506&set=a.336803713051474.82802.334816523250193&type=3&theater  ‘

http://www.astrobio.net/exclusive/2841/the-stuff-of-life-on-titan; http://www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblog/2012/08/is-saturns-titan-capable-of-creating-the-molecules-that-make-up-dna-todays-most-popular.html; http://phys.org/news/2011-05-ocean-titan.html
Photo: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-_dEbTLz5lXQ/TcpABteJOkI/AAAAAAAACf4/q7P4iyo3_xg/s1600/kees_saturn_titan.jpg

The Ant Shaped Nebula

The Ant Nebula, aka Mz3, is a young bipolar planetary nebula in the constellation Norma. It is 8,000 light years away from Earth and it has a magnitude of 13.8. It was discovered by Donald Howard Menzel in 1922. The nebula is composed of a bright core and four high-velocity outflows which have been variously named as lobes, columns, rays, and chakram. The gas being ejected travels at 1000-kilometres per second and the structure is one light year long.

So why is this nebula an odd shape? There are a couple of possibilities.

  1. One is that the central star of Mz3 has a companion orbiting closely that is exerting strong gravitational forces, shaping the out flowing gas. 
  2. The second possibility is that the strong magnetic fields are being wound into complex shapes by the spin of the dying star. 
No other planetary nebula observed by Hubble closely resembles Mz3. M2-9 comes close, but M2-9 has prominent hydrogen emission lines in the near infra-red whereas Mz3 has no trace of molecular hydrogen emission.

Photo: THE ANT NEBULA

The Ant Nebula, aka Mz3, is a young bipolar planetary nebula in the constellation Norma. It is 8,000 light years away from Earth and it has a magnitude of 13.8. It was discovered by Donald Howard Menzel in 1922. The nebula is composed of a bright core and four high-velocity outflows which have been variously named as lobes, columns, rays, and chakram. The gas being ejected travels at 1000-kilometres per second and the structure is one light year long. 

So why is this nebula an odd shape? There are a couple of possibilities. One is that the central star of Mz3 has a companion orbiting closely that is exerting strong gravitational forces, shaping the out flowing gas. The second possibility is that the strong magnetic fields are being wound into complex shapes by the spin of the dying star. No other planetary nebula observed by Hubble closely resembles Mz3. M2-9 comes close, but M2-9 has prominent hydrogen emission lines in the near infra-red whereas Mz3 has no trace of molecular hydrogen emission. 

-TEL

Post on M2-9: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=403358193062692&set=a.334832996581879.82450.334816523250193&type=3&theater

http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap050501.html; http://heritage.stsci.edu/2001/05/caption.html
Photo: R. Sahai (JPL) et al., Hubble Heritage Team, ESA, NASA

The Farthest Spiral Galaxy Ever Seen

At the edge of the observable universe, where most galaxies appear as blobs, lies BX442. It is found within the constellation Pegasus and has a redshift of 2.18; meaning it is 10.7 billion light-years from Earth and therefore existed just 3 billion years after the big bang.

Astronomer David Law and his team at the University of Toronto, St. George, in Canada used the Hubble Space Telescope to examine 306 distant galaxies. They spied a galaxy with three spiral arms, and confirmed the distance of the galaxy with subsequent observations using the Keck II telescope in Hawaii. The Doppler shifts from different parts of the galaxy’s disk show that it spins as fast as the Milky Way does. The galaxy is 50,000 light years across and though half the size of the Milky Way, it harbours more gas and spawns more stars. 

In the distant past, spiral galaxies were rare, as stars and gas clouds moved fast relative to each other which suppressed spiral structure and also caused more galactic collisions. Other galaxies from such early epochs appear clumpy and irregular. Almost two thirds of today’s bright galaxies are spirals. BX442’s spiral nature may be due to the small companion it has, stirring up the spiral structure, though it could be down to the large amount of gas in the galaxy.

In the time it has taken for the light of this galaxy to travel to Earth, it may already have collided with another galaxy, tearing apart the spirals and leaving the galaxy as an ellipsoidal shape.

The image shows an artist’s conception of the galaxy to the right; the image at left is of a companion galaxy whose gravity may have caused the spiral structure.

Photo: THE FARTHEST SPIRAL GALAXY EVER SEEN

At the edge of the observable universe, where most galaxies appear as blobs, lies BX442. It is found within the constellation Pegasus and has a redshift of 2.18; meaning it is 10.7 billion light-years from Earth and therefore existed just 3 billion years after the big bang.

Astronomer David Law and his team at the University of Toronto, St. George, in Canada used the Hubble Space Telescope to examine 306 distant galaxies. They spied a galaxy with three spiral arms, and confirmed the distance of the galaxy with subsequent observations using the Keck II telescope in Hawaii. The Doppler shifts from different parts of the galaxy’s disk show that it spins as fast as the Milky Way does. The galaxy is 50,000 light years across and though half the size of the Milky Way, it harbours more gas and spawns more stars. 

In the distant past, spiral galaxies were rare, as stars and gas clouds moved fast relative to each other which suppressed spiral structure and also caused more galactic collisions. Other galaxies from such early epochs appear clumpy and irregular. Almost two thirds of today’s bright galaxies are spirals. BX442’s spiral nature may be due to the small companion it has, stirring up the spiral structure, though it could be down to the large amount of gas in the galaxy.

In the time it has taken for the light of this galaxy to travel to Earth, it may already have collided with another galaxy, tearing apart the spirals and leaving the galaxy as an ellipsoidal shape.

The image shows an artist’s conception of the galaxy to the right; the image at left is of a companion galaxy whose gravity may have caused the spiral structure.

-TEL

http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2012/07/hubble-spots-the-farthest-spiral.html; http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v487/n7407/full/nature11256.html

Image Credit: (left) David Law; (right) Joe Bergeron, Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/assets_c/2012/07/sn-spiral-thumb-800xauto-13979.jpg

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